Cumulate Water Resources

Water is formless and shapeless You can accumulate water Anywhere you wish

But, only if YOU wish !

Let’s start to Accumulate and Accrue Water

Productive water and losses without water conserving or harvesting measures in drylands.

(Liniger et al.,2011 based on Rockström et al., 2007)

Van Steenbergen and Tuinhof, 2009; Tuinhof et al., 2012

Classification of Water Harvesting based on catchment type

Flood Water Harvesting

Below: Floodwater harvesting within streambed

-Riverbed /wadi and gully reclamation

-Permeable rock dams

Right: Floodwater diversion system (off-streambed)

-Spate irrigation

-Floodwater spreading bunds

Van Steenbergen, 2010

Ratsey 2011

Rain Water Harvesting

Dr. Sekhar Raghavan, Rain Centre, Chennai

Spectrum of agricultural water management (Molden, 2007)

Field conservation practices relate to in situ water conservation practices

Macro Catchment Water Harvesting

Injection / Recharge well

Water storage in soil:

– Hillside runoff / conduit,

– Foothill reclamation

– Large semi-circular or trapezoidal bunds,

– Road runoff

– Gully plugging / productive gullies

– Cut-off drains (redirection of water)

Surface storage:

– Natural depressions

– Ponds and pans

– Cultivated reservoirs / tanks

– Ponds for groundwater recharge

– Surface dams: small earth and stone dams

– Check dams, Rock catchment masonry dams;

Subsurface storage:

– Aquifer

– Subsurface percolation dams

– Subsurface sand dams

– Subsurface reservoirs

– Cisterns

– Injection / Recharge wells

Liniger et al., 2011; Critchley and Gowing, 2012; Oweis, et al., 2012

Micro Catchment Water Harvesting

Planting Pits

Contour lines and Trenches

Vegetative Strips

Pits and Basins:

– Small planting pits

– Semi-circular bunds

– Eyebrow terraces

– Mechanised Vallerani basins

Cross-slope barriers:

– Vegetative strips

– Contour bunds and ridges

– Stone lines and bunds

– Contour bench terraces

Critchley and Siegert, 1991

Rooftop and Courtyard Water Harvesting

Rooftop Harvesting

Courtyard Harvesting combined with rooftop

NIssen-Petersen 2007, Thomas and Martinson, 2007